Until the event, heat waves were a strongly underestimated risk in the French context, which partly explains the high number of victims. Below are stats for the month of August in France. Since the country uses the metric system, all values are in metric. Conversions to imperial are found here.www.aristocrat-club.ru/modules/2394.php
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In Portugal, an estimated 1, to 2, people died of heat-related causes. At dawn that same day, a freak storm developed in the southern region of the country. Over the next week, a hot, strong sirocco wind contributed to the spread of extensive forest-fires. About 1,   heat-related deaths occurred in the Netherlands , again largely the elderly. A higher temperature had only been recorded twice before. On 8 August, a temperature of Initially, deaths were attributed to the heat wave in Spain.
The weather station of Catenanuova , in Sicily , had a monthly mean of In Germany, shipping could not navigate the Elbe or Danube , as a result of low water levels. Around people—mostly elderly—died during the heatwave in Germany. Melting glaciers in the Alps caused avalanches and flash floods in Switzerland. A new nationwide record temperature of The United Kingdom experienced one of its hottest summers on record with temperatures well above average. However, Atlantic cyclones brought cool and wet weather for a short while at the end of July and beginning of August before the temperatures started to increase substantially from 3 August onwards.
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Several weather records were broken in the United Kingdom, including the UK's highest recorded temperature Scotland also broke its highest temperature record with The tarmac melted on part of the M25 between Junctions 26 and 27,  and rails buckled from expansion on the hottest day in England in 13 years, while 2 teenaged boys drowned while trying to escape the excessive heat. The summer of was warmer than average in Ireland, but the heat was far less pronounced there than in the rest of Europe. The highest temperature recorded was Remarkably, Scandinavia saw a cooler August in than the previous year when comparative temperatures were very high for the latitude, as the hot air parked over continental Europe.
Only the deep southern Sweden saw any type of heatwave effect in the country, with the average high of Lund for August being The records from and held up all throughout the country, and the warmest temperature was Although a comparatively low exposure to the heatwave this is to be expected given the greater continental influence.
When compared with the — averages the August month was still a couple of degrees warmer than a normal August in the southern third of the country.
The bulk of the heat wave in Sweden was instead seen earlier in July in the central and northerly parts of the country, where Stockholm had a July mean of In northern Sweden, August temperatures are rarely warm due to the decreased exposure of the low but everlasting sun during the summer solstice. As a result, temperatures there peak in July if it is a warm summer. These shortfalls in wheat harvest occurred as a result of the long drought.
The heatwave greatly accelerated the ripening of grapes ; also, the heat dehydrated the grapes, making for more concentrated juice. By mid-August, the grapes in certain vineyards had already reached their optimal sugar content , possibly resulting in Because of that, and also of the impending change to rainy weather, the harvest was started much earlier than usual e. The wines from , although in scarce quantity, are predicted to have exceptional quality, especially in France.
The heatwave made Hungary fare extremely well in the Vinalies International wine contest: a total of nine gold and nine silver medals were awarded to Hungarian winemakers. The anomalous overheating affecting the atmosphere also created anomalies on sea surface stratification in the Mediterranean Sea and on the surface currents, as well. A seasonal current of the central Mediterranean Sea, the Atlantic Ionian Stream AIS , was affected by the warm temperatures, resulting in modifications in its path and intensity.
The AIS is important for the reproduction biology of important pelagic commercial fish species, so the heatwave may have influenced indirectly the stocks of these species. The heatwave was possibly attributed to global warming , with temperatures rising to an unseen high over Europe. France had no policy in place for such a major heatwave as this, because climate change was viewed as a problem in the distant future. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Comptes Rendus Biologies.
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Met Office. Archived from the original on 23 October Retrieved 16 February Risk Analysis, — Metric Conversions. Archived from the original PDF on 24 June Retrieved 6 July Archived from the original on 12 January Retrieved 15 March Archived from the original on 13 March Archived from the original on 11 August Retrieved 6 August Retrieved 2 August Last Retrieved 9 February Archived from the original on 17 March Weather Underground. August Archived from the original PDF on 29 September Ministero della Salute, L'ondata di calore dell'estate I'm talking about the heating of a parked car, with the engine off.
I generally leave my moon roof cracked; I figure that way not too much hot air will seep in the whole hot-air-rises thing and as the internal temperature rises as a whole there will remain a vent for the heat. I drive a Jeep. No roof, no doors, no windows to crack open. The inside temperature is always the same as the outside temperature. In the Los Angeles area it is common for closed all windows shut parked cars to exceed F. I have a Raytek MiniTemp, which is great for this.
To find out quickly how long it takes for your car to reach ambient temperature, park the car, turn the engine and accessories off, and watch the clock and a thermometer. The point of cracking windows two or more is not to let heat escape, but to get convection currents going. If the air below your roof is F and the outside air is 90 F, the outside is cooler and denser, and convection will be driven by denser air pouring slowly in, making hotter air 'chimney' out.
Opening the door to get out of the car will lose a significant amount of the volume of cool air especially as the cool air follows you in the low pressure created behind you as you exit the car. In a small car, I would imagine this amount to be a fair percentage of total volume. Perhaps in a mini-van or large SUV you might be able to retain enough cool air to make a difference, but in a small car I don't think you could retain enough cool air to make keeping the windows closed a better option. Here in Austin, TX, a fair number of people leave the engine running and the AC on while parked to go to the grocery store.
There are trees in the parking lot research shows that trees in the parking lot increase profits , but one does not want to park under one inhabited by grackles. Crack the windows. Unless the entire interior of your car is cooled to the AC temperature, the car will heat up very quickly ever felt the dash? It takes a long time to cool that off. If your drive to the store is short, the interior elements will still be hot.
Another related test: When driving, after you feel comfortable, shut off the AC - how long can you bear it without turning it back on? For me, not very long. If no AC is running, cracked windows win whether the car is still or not. Arlanthe's comment doesn't surprise me. My experience indicates that in the South, it doesn't take very long for a car interior to get hot once the AC is off. One big reason is that the interior surfaces are probably already hot because the AC has cooled mainly the air but not the surfaces. The color of your car's interior is going to affect the time it takes to heat up by varying the efficiency of the absorption.
And then there's location changing the insolation. A light interior in upstate NY is probably going to yield noticeably different results than a dark interior in Florida, under otherwise identical conditions temperature, time of day, etc. Crack passenger and driver windows about an inch. Don't bother with rear windows. The heatup of the car is amazingly quick. Unless your car is white, the roof will probably be F or more, and this heat will radiate down and heat it up pretty quickly regardless of window tints or windshield reflectors.
At least our's is a dry heat, I usually use the fan instead of AC below , so the interior is never much cooler than ambient. And I live and work in very windy climates so you get a lot of air circulation. In a humid climate the answer might be to close them for stops of under 10 to 20 minutes, as the AC has dried out the air a lot, it's not just the heat temperature , but the humidity. The Prius parked AC is a gimmick, essentially a PV powered ventillation fan, so you can get airflow without worrying about opening your windows or running down the battery.
I once had seen some solar powered fan you can put on your car window. I wanted to try one, but an internet search came up empty.
It is most efficient when starting on a hot day, to use open windows plus fans for the first few minutes of your drive, then close um and switch to AC. Amega Centauri, an Atlanta TV station tested one of those solar-powered car ventilation devices and found that it did essentially nothing.
It was no surprise, because only one window was opened and it was almost entirely sealed by a piece of rubber weatherstripping. As I mentioned above, the windows need to be opened more than a half an inch. I think there is very little air flow with an opening that size in the absence of wind, regardless of the inside-outside temperature difference. You drill a three-inch hole in the top of the trailer, and the fan fits directly into it. Something similar should we workable for a car, although it would take careful engineering to get the aesthetics right.
Few people want a barnacle on their car roof, no matter how useful. I have a black car with air conditioning that doesn't work that well and who but a global warming denier would cool their car's interior to 70 when it's 90 outside, anyway? Yuppie swine that I am, driving an air conditioned car as I do albeit a Honda Insight Hybrid I have a spanner to throw into the works: I have tinted windows.
This was not my idea; my dealer does this pro forma but not pro bono. Nonetheless, it does affect my vote close all the windows. Were I to park the car in the sun for longer than a few minutes,I would probably crack the windows. But I would also probably look for a tree to park under. I live in North Texas, where climate change does not exist via the denial route , but where the sun always shines, even when there are tornadoes running through. If you leave the windows cracked you won't have to worry about the temperature of the interior when you get back as the car will have been stolen.
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The new car delivered as a replacement will have been driven there, and will thus have a nicely cool interior. Ergo, it's better to crack the windows as it will give you a cool car albeit with a delay of hours or days on your return to it. The answer depends on variables. I suspect in most summer cases ten minutes is about break even. So far, I think peter has the best answer in that not much cool air escapes and if it does get hot, you've got relief. As for helping prevent so much heat buildup, cars and houses etc.
It would be a sort of self-contained shade, and not very much could conduct to the main body. I can understand aerodynamic objections etc. I know this isn't the point, but if you want a practical suggestion, google for 'solar car window fan'. It lets you keep the car locked but still have a little air circulation. For about ten bucks. I find that parking facing the sun, installing a reflective and insulated sunshade, and cracking the windows about inches helps keep the car bearable. However, it gets darn hot really quick anytime you park. Heck, I think people run red lights in this town to avoid sitting at intersections because the AC works worse while stopped at a light due to getting more hot air from the cowl and reduced air flow through the condenser.
It always sucks. No matter what you do. If you are parking in an area predominantly and highly democratic you should definitively close your windows! Otherwise they are going to break into your car! That heat energy is used for two things Therefore there is less heat energy left over to cause as much temperature increase had you left the windows closed.
I have no idea if I'm correct, it just seems from a thermodynamic view this is what happens. I have a question that bears somewhat on this issue of keeping cars parked in the sun, cooler. They should be on the OUTside of the window acting as real shades and reflecting away the sun before it gets into the inside of the car.
Following up on the comment posted by Lee Sept. Does this make any difference at all? Is there any tinting available that reflects the sun's rays as opposed to simply filtering it? And if so, how expensive is it? Since an enclosed, small space heats up more quickly than a large, unenclosed space, most of this doesn't matter when discussing cars.
The best answers I've seen so far are don't park in direct sunlight, let rising heat vent, and for comfort, AC is just about the only option in heat. By drorzel on June 3, The temperature is 90F, in your car it's 70F. You're going into the store for 10min.
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