Log In. Forgot account? Not Now. Visitor Posts. Je ne bichonne pas la fem Ne pas honorer la femme, c'est inconcevable. Peu importe notre parlotte, elle reste notre porte. D'ailleurs c'est quand notre vie rime avec son amour, que notre sourire devient immense chaque jour. Information about Page Insights Data. Just came out Oh dead! In you the opinions are shared: Some fear you, Others consider you As a release. Leopold Poungui Petals of the flowers of exile poems of poems Translated. Good start of the week to all! Be new talents is our everyday challenge.
See More. Aubin Banzouzi. Art-Culture-media Read or re-Read: "in the name of love" of digne Elvis tsalissan okombi The initiation novel, edited by African Renaissance, is a work that is suitable to be held in the school program. Benefiting from the preface of winner dimixson perfection, he presents a multi-facial story written in a language language. The book reports the story of Lazarus Momboya, a kid who loses early his father, then his mother, both taken by the aids pandemic. Unfortunately, falsely accused of being at the origin of his father's death, he will be condemned by a customary court that will use this pretext for the spolier of his rights of legitimate heir.
Promised to start for a promising future, Lazarus will sink into painful mishaps before seeing, at random of the circumstances, the end of the tunnel. The themes that are reflected in the story of the story are very realistic and topical. The author shows a good knowledge of his time and his contemporaries, highlighting an inclusive look on all the layers of society and feeding his imagination fictionalized by facts facts in all environments.
From the village to the city, intimate scenes to public life, bandits of the great way to the illuminated mutineers who alienate less lucid minds, nothing escapes the verve of the writer. From this wide range of experiences molded harmoniously in the timeline of the life of a literary character, is a stoic moral that comes to the end of the vicissitudes of existence.
Lazarus is, indeed, far from being an anti-Hero, despite a temporary life of patachon that makes him more seasoned. Honest and loyal character, in the generous and helping heart, he turns out despite the low blows, fruits of wickedness and human ingratitude. Like what, good, truth and love always have at the finish the word of victory. Worthy Elvis tsalissan okombi, member of the district of ngo and former minister in Congo-Brazzaville, signed by this novel his first work with fiction.
Aubin banzouzi Translated. Art-Culture-media Read or reread: "the wrath of the river" by Prince Arnie matoko Seven News are the collection published in the African Renaissance editions. The content of the work shows the attachment of the congolese writer to his country. The writer as a witness to his time is a spokesperson for the misfortunes of the people.
Church of St. Mary-in-Castro; unit is time. To be the Church of St. These place names link a dif- domestic spaces that are accented with new. Moreover, the choice to seemingly old with the new, through- religious and local urban communities. In this possible in many new residential spaces. The gentrifying villa- cultural capital from the building to the confused about its supposed use. The ges of Little Italy and Little Portugal, owner. Indeed, intended as acteristic of postindustrial inner-cities. By gious heritage.
In this way, converting the an accessible vibrancy and diversity that the winter of , the doors to former CJUC to lofts presented enormous many consumers seek in a modern city. Dovercourt Road were reopened—not to challenges ranging from the structural to a crowd of returning parishioners but to a the symbolic.
Selling rather ful renovation and preservation of the that is offered here. Importantly, this case study demonstrates that material renovations to historic post- institutional properties like churches are but one element in the reuse process. As more redundant churches are becom- ing loft spaces in the city of Toronto, developers and architects are increas- ingly involved in reconstructing urban heritage not only through repolishing the character-defining elements of the built form, but also through producing specific narratives of place and space that help to legitimize and sell a unique fig.
Dovenco Inc. This article presents work from my current This paper would not born formed in This range includes interior space only. The Personal interview with Benjamin Watt-Meyer, guidance of my thesis committee comprised vast majority of the units also include outdoor August I would like to For more on this point see: Rofe, Matthew and of the Church Lofts. Research, vol. Murdie and Teixeira, op. Critical Toponymies: The Contested Politics of 3. Zukin, Sharon, , op. Website: [www.
Estimates for new condominium built by 6.
Robert ed. Kings: Is their Boom Sustainable? Savitch, Hank V. Livey, op. Personal interview with Benjamin Watt-Meyer, For more on this topic, see Lynch, Nicholas and Marc Grignon. Il fallait agir. Combien Proust, Marcel, , monuments, Paris, Seuil, p. His work on heritage issues is recognized internationally, especially in the evaluation of economic and social benefits of cultural conservation. As well as being a I n Canada we continue to lose both our irreplaceable architectural treasures, such as Alma College in St. Thomas, registered professional planner he is a founding Ontario, destroyed by fire in May ,1 member of the Canadian Association of Heritage and the vernacular buildings that con- Professionals.
Stories of the latter appear of Planning at the University of Waterloo. She is almost weekly in newspapers and blogs a candidate in the masters program in historic across the country, but the potential conservation at Carlton University in Ottawa. A study of properties listed in the Canadian inventory of historic build- ing found that since the list was compiled in the s and s, as many as twenty percent had disappeared. Too often the loss of heritage structures is actually the result of planning processes in a system that appears to favour what passes for economic development, mod- ernization, and so-called progress over societal values of what should be pre- served.
Marc Denhez, in his great book The Canadian Home, traces the genesis of these attitudes to a very specific time and an altogether deliberate policy. Clifford Clark, the economic advisor to Prime Minister W. Mackenzie King, denounced existing Canadian fig. Thomas, Ontario, was destroyed by fire in after a long struggle over land use issues and the failure of the province to intervene.
A couple questions about the function and oper- trial revolution and should be updated of heritage architects were invited to par- ation of the Board. The issue appointed, quasi-judicial body, which interloper, the automobile industry. Act that ignored repairs, presumed that Planning Act or were they stand-alone It has immense power. It is the appeal buildings depreciate at breakneck speed, statutes. That practicing lawyers deal- mechanism for matters under both the and reserved the best tax treatment for ing with municipal matters would ask Planning Act and the Heritage Act.
Asked demolition — better than donating a such a question is almost unbelievable. It by a member of the Provincial Parliament building to charity. The government of would be like asking if the Criminal Code if the members of the OMB who sat in the day intended to follow a program of has anything to do with the Prisons and judgement on issues relating to heritage planned obsolescence, which would see Reformatories Act. They do […] We have on our Board economic activity. These laws Marc Denhez, who is known across Canada dating from the s were intended to and the United States.
He knows the business; he knows ciples, our new appreciation of energy who are signatories to the World Heritage the act. The degree of conservation, the desire for smart growth Convention and other United Nations condescension implied in that statement and culture-led creative cities, all point to Educational Scientific and Cultural is troubling to say the least.
While the the errors of planned obsolescence and Organization UNESCO declarations and Chair of the OMB tacitly admitted that the wisdom in adaptive reuse of build- conventions that place heritage con- only one member of the Board was quali- ings. A central problem in this regard of cultural value to the community are mony before the members of Parliament lies in the education system. It is perhaps integral components of good planning. A frustrating reality is in February a city councillor com- is a panel called the Conservation Review that while the importance of architectural menting on adding properties to the Board CRB.
Unfortunately, the degree of ignor- issue was listing buildings that clearly met heritage and architectural conservation ance both of the law and the principles of a set of objective guidelines under the issues, it is not surprising that the OMB sustainability are all too evident among Heritage Act. Some and credibility. In early , a Board illustrations will demonstrate the point. The case was of course organized. A broad Internet search using Heritage acts but on obscure technical- no fault of their own.
This study has set the same keywords brought numerous ities. While the St. Catharines City Council out to examine a number of things.
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The public agencies to light within the three had designated the area as a conservation first was to determine whether anything geographic areas: Canada, the United district, they had not passed a specific about the built environment is being Kingdom, and the United States. Finally, by-law adopting the formal plan for the taught in our schools. In particular we professionals within the heritage com- area. There are other cases, too numer- have examined the primary curriculum munity across Canada were contacted ous to mention, but the impression one is in Ontario.
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If as a community we decide to supply their opinion on the methods left with is that in the land use planning that we should be teaching more to our being used by the ministries of Education system in Ontario, heritage is considered children about the form and richness of and Training, as well as their own public by many decision-makers as inconsequen- the neighbourhoods in which they live, agencies, to teach children about local tial and expendable in spite of the clearly where might we look for inspiration and heritage.
They were also asked for sug- stated laws intended to conserve the valu- models? This study draws on our find- gestions on possible solutions that might able elements of the built environment. Why, might we ask, is there not more environment to our identity and quality of a public outcry and protest over such of life. The unfortunate conclusion is that both In recent years, the natural environment the decision-makers and the general Our Approach has become the primary focus of environ- public are so inadequately educated and mental education in schools.
This is very like the situa- tions investigating the state of curriculum to publish and update teaching manu- tion years ago with regard to the natural in Canada, the United Kingdom, and the als and curricula in order to encourage environment, waterways, and air qual- United States.
These documents summar- sustainable responsiveness and environ- ity. Ordinary people did not realize that ize the goals, strategies, and tools used to mental thought. In , the Ministry chemical plants were dumping toxins in teach children about subjects related to commissioned the Working Group on holes all over our communities. Citizens the environment they live in. Specifically, Environmental Education to produce a had not been educated to understand we narrowed our investigation to include document entitled Shaping Our Schools, that health problems and species extinc- the subjects of social studies, history, Shaping Our Future to define environ- tions were being caused by the very and geography in the elementary school mental education, recommend changes industries where many of them worked.
In addition, a general search of to the existing curriculum, and mandate Once these facts became widely known, recent research was completed for articles the involvement of school boards and there was a groundswell of reaction in peer-reviewed journals relating to the schools to apply sustainable practices against such practices and while the fight topics of heritage, history, local neigh- in their operations.
The guide offers a to clean up the environment is not over, bourhoods, and urban design within the definition of the environment to be con- it is a battle that people understand and field of education. Studies, Cultural Resource Management, science classes. It was human development can have on these Board ought to have a better understand- revealed that while research was lim- systems. Both guides fail to recognize people about planning can have a sub- ing. Students could be ledge and commitment. It would the way in which residents examine the the built environment.
As one theorist puts it: that decides what will happen to their Room for Improvement immediate environment. That creating adaptive communities and reno- environment has on people and vice-versa; being said, there are opportunities within vating existing neighbourhoods. While a and finally they would be sensitized to the the existing social studies framework to strong focus on intensifying and revital- power of political and economic interests incorporate a local heritage component izing downtown areas exists,11 the demoli- and the deprivation of social, physical and into lesson plans.
Currently the topics tion of existing structures will cause the economic traits. This concept is called side the classroom. Fundamentally this used, all the energy that went into its environment takes precedence. It teaches opportunity for adaptive reuse of build- environment would encourage a sense of students the similarities and differences ings that still have strong structural ele- social responsibility and promote social about urban and rural environments ments. Young people are more likely other. These lessons represent the funda- can be beneficial as the materials and to be influenced by their teachers to get mental integrated knowledge modules craftsmanship are of superior quality.
Students gather an under- as concerts, games, and festivities. When the Ministry ges had on the settlement and expansion of Education and Training established of the nation. Within the specific expectations of the role they can play in supporting and students in these classes, the Ministry sug- strengthening their communities.
Both the Architecture Conservancy live. Potentially the classes could easily of Ontario and the Ontario Heritage Trust pull elements of history and geography offer reward programs to acknowledge Learning from the Leaders together to enhance an understanding the commitment youths have made in the of neighbourhood heritage. While there field of heritage conservation. Both within and beyond the Canadian is presently little interest in applying context, it was discovered that many these changes at the school board level, While steps have been taken to tar- school boards, non-governmental organ- in the Ministry of Education modi- get teens outside the classroom, local izations, and community organizations fied its curriculum development process organizations have not taken actions to have taken initiatives to promote heritage to allow cyclical review on a yearly basis.
At present there are many small- create changes to the state of heritage the curriculum. In the past, the Heritage scale initiatives within regions to teach education and we assume that there are Canada Foundation HCF has produced students about individual heritage sites. External to that these books were too costly and school boards and their primary purpose the efforts of the education sector, the took up too much staff time to produce is to educate students.
Examples within opportunities for partnerships with the and the initiative was discontinued. While they recognize that a program that Fanshawe Pioneer Village in London, would allow children to think about the Joseph Snider Haus in Kitchener, Fort The Ontario Heritage Trust facilitates an built environment would be extremely George in Niagara-on-the-Lake, and annual Heritage Week celebration to rec- powerful, the lack of revenue poten- Black Creek in Toronto.
These sites focus ognize the impact that built heritage has tial has prevented them from renewing on early settler history which, while on the community and citizens. During the process. Finally, due to the national important, is a very minimal selection of the Heritage Week, local historical soci- nature of the HCF, there are reservations Canadian heritage. Furthermore they only eties organize events and promote aware- about how much they can change prov- examine case-by-case examples and not ness within local districts. The London incial curricula while maintaining con- the larger heritage context.
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Some are in Heritage Council, for example, created sistency across the country. The average age of a skilled bricklayer in Canada is fifty-eight. Why are we not training young people for these lucrative jobs? The Trust offers a diversity of topics related to his- neighbourhoods. The manual was a good ment. While providing development and planning in general within the local conservation and archi- opportunities to visit heritage proper- terms. The results natural environment than opportunities from across the country; however, Ontario quickly showed that the developing field to explore the greater urban framework.
While pro- needed educated and interested people viding evidence of how the lesson plans to contribute to projects. The High School National Trust for Historic would fit in classroom activities, there for the Preservation Arts was founded in Preservation was no effort to identify the diversity of to give students an opportunity to communities across the country. Instead, view traditional subjects with a significant Like the UK program, the United States communities were described in general focus on historic preservation to study cre- National Trust for Historic Preservation terms and lacked the understanding of ation, preservation, and interpretation of NTHP relies on the advantages of the sense of place created by spatial con- artefacts.
Very few of the activities provided focus does not relate directly to planning students about the environment. What within the guide made any reference to and heritage, the same principles could it does differently is combine the out- heritage preservation, and those that did be applied to employment opportunities of-the-classroom approach with lesson generated only a vague understanding of in renovation and adaptive reuse of the plans, activities, and in-class resources how communities began and how they built form.
More than half of the value related to the existing curriculum frame- evolved over time. There were question of construction in Canada is presently work to teach students about heritage. The NTHP believes that by motivating students to explore their community, talk to people, and look at the landscape, a better understand- ing of how and why the built environ- ment developed can be generated. The Trust provides resources for teachers and updates these lessons frequently to offer diversity in case studies. One example posted in the month of November suggested that students write a history of local buildings and changes that a com- munity has seen over time by examining secondary sources.
The NTHP educators. Secondly, students typically find local a thorough appreciation of heritage con- paring detailed lesson plans and supply history more interesting due to the dir- servation. An exploration and analysis of guidance on how the lessons can be most ect effect on their lives and the places in housing is encouraged in grades three to efficiently conducted. Finally, one of the which they spend their time. Students fellow educators within their school dis- develop an understanding of how the trict and across the country alike. One of The general concept of the guide was to complexity of houses changes and archi- the only resources of its kind, this service produce three umbrella topics to teach tecture evolves to reflect the social and is affordable and offers an easily access- segments of heritage to varying age economic patterns of a time period.
Of most sig- development of their communities, from Prairie Voices nificance to the built environment were the time of aboriginal occupation, the Generalization I: Buildings and artefacts founding of frontier towns, to the cur- In America, at a state level, Iowa has as resources in explaining the history rent economic state. Prairie Voices Documents as resources in explaining students to familiarize themselves with was published in to describe the con- community history.
Prairie Voices recommends a local of Education and Training, and hopefully that negotiated a common approach to site that demonstrates not only a clas- other provincial education departments, historic site documentation among all the sical Victorian residence but also teaches have laid the foundation for teaching provinces and territories and set national students about the roles of personal- students about the built environment, guidelines for conservation. Most communities in drastic improvements are needed. With Canada have access to similar historic sites the oppor tunity to revise and make There are always huge challenges facing but much can be learned from ordinary changes to the curriculum regularly, the the advocates of heritage and archi- neighbourhoods.
There are site- make common cause with school boards specific crises almost weekly, battles to At a larger scale, students in elementary and teachers to push for specific archi- be fought to save national historic sites schools can investigate how their towns, tectural heritage principles to be taught. There are many good and local proper ties threatened by noticed in growth patterns and develop- models for what these study modules unsympathetic owners and developers.
Similarly, trends might look like, some of which have been But if ignorance of the importance of such as large lots, mature vegetation, explored above. If current decision-mak- churches, schools, and municipal buildings neighbourhood associations, planning ers are the problem, then teaching future can all be explored to create awareness departments, and local, provincial, and decision-makers is the solution. At present there is very Conclusion little interaction between stakeholders 1. Denhez, Marc, , The Canadian Home and many local councillors.
While it may and resources largely because it was too from Cave to Electronic Cocoon, Toronto, be too late for those people, architectural expensive. R y p ke m a , D o n e v a n , 2 0 0 8 , H i s t o r i c education to instil an enhanced apprecia- Society have demonstrated that publish- Preservation and Sustainable Development, tion of the built environment in the deci- ing and operating costs can be greatly Address to the Landmarks not Landfill sion-makers and citizens of the future.
Should this be: The Record, Kitchener Ontario Ministry of Education and Training, provinces and territories to establish a uni- Waterloo, Sunday, February 14, A simi- lar process could establish a country-wide 9. Hansard, Legislative Assembly of Ontario, S awchuck, Michael, phone interview by Canada has produced an excellent new School Boards and Ministries of Education. Kibert, Charles J. Chini, Jennifer C anadian Institute of Planners, n. L angu ell, and M. L aRue, Paul, Modernist of twentieth-century public works. Colonialism and Critical Regionalism Often the coming of modernity to the regions worked as a kind of colonialism.
Hence the breathless prose of the Halifax newspapers in , describing the new Canada Permanent Trust offices fig. In the Canada Permanent Building, the transferred techniques of steel structure and aluminium curtain wall fig. Architectural firm: C. Fowler, Jamie MacDonald. View from southeast, May Chad Jamieson. Fowler, Andrew Lynch, Junji Mikawa. Halifax Regional Library. Detail of precast concrete cladding and concrete structure, May A related risk is that of a patronizing use of modern forms and spatial ideas of lightweight steel and thin curtain wall reading of regional works as derivative, and extensive use of concrete, under would result in more workable spaces.
As the Canada Permanent Andrews.
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Modernity in new buildings is the Dalhousie Arts Centre structure, while the slope of the site is the regions saw the creation of new ter- fig. Junji Mikawa collection. Stubs of concrete bridges animate the facades, and suggest the potential of connec- tions across University Avenue and over the flanking streets to connect to future neighbours fig.
An elevated terrace at the rear begins an exterior route up to the secret theatre space of the roof terrace, a space which now lies dormant, awaiting the imagination of the Dalhousie com- munity.
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The obsessive connection-making of the exterior carries forward in the main lobby, a wonderfully fluid multi-storey landscape of stairs and balconies rendered fig. Entry lobby fig. Junji Mikawa was responsible significance, and a locus for ongoing cul- Metabolist ideas to Halifax where they for the overall form and planning of the tural exchange. Mikawa came to Canada were given room for expression fig. Exterior view towards entry and tower, fig. Charlottetown, PE. Hennessey Architect, Charlottetown, PE.
Design architect: Alfred Hennessey. View of the altar, April The Holy Redeemer Church are the result of appears to be a very typical Roman church reflects the liturgical reforms: the individual mobility, media transmission Catholic church, with its fan-shaped plan celebrant priest is behind the altar, facing of ideas and forms, and the local reson- enclosed by low perimeter walls, covered the congregation in pews arranged for ance of international cultural movements.
Radial in Latin fig. The rich, coarse tex- commonplace of church architecture. Holy and Lie of Progress tures of the brick interior walls and stone Redeemer Church, a small parish in a small floor ripple in the light, while the ragged city on an island province, stands as a very Modernity has always existed in uneasy geometries of plan and section provide pure and very early architectural expres- relationship to local vernaculars, especially additional pools of darkness.
Here modernity An examination of the timelines shows French philosopher Paul Ricoeur marks is a work in progress, imperfectly achieved that Holy Redeemer is in fact a proto- the distinction in modernity between or perhaps never truly begun. Federal type of what became a widespread late- culture a local, particular phenomenon government-funded industrialization and twentieth-century church form. The first and civilization a dominant, universal regional development strategies create session of the Second Vatican Council phenomenon. Delineator: CHM fig. Black ink, sepia ink, and pencil on vellum.
Alfred Hennessey collection. A clearly antimodern image of place, presented to elicit touristic desire. Nova Scotia Department of Tourism and Culture. Beginning in the of farming, forestry, and fishing results s, the rise of the tourist industry in the Between and the government of in increased overhead and indebtedness, Maritime Provinces and Newfoundland has Nova Scotia pursued a consistent policy of destroying traditional subsistence econom- been accompanied by the development of developing historical resources to promote ics.
Young and premodern buildings and settlements. Tourism around the world. Evangeline, Anne the complication and anxieties of twenti- Mass tourism is the late twentieth cen- of Green Gables, Gaelic New Scotland, eth-century modernity. Official hooked mat, all have been invented or was a key element of the development and popular reception of modern archi- perfected since the s, supported by of the tourist industry in the s, while tecture in Atlantic Canada is poised on schools devoted to bagpipes, weaving, the desire to express the comforts of the an uneasy edge between the desire to and step dance.
View of the original fig. View of Water storefront facing Water Street, with Street frontage after the application of continuous plate glass display windows a historicist veneer of brick and punched and cantilevered canopy, s. Steven Mannell. Archive, Design Tzonis and Liane Lefaivre describe this as settlement pattern borrows more from architect: Angus Campbell.
Buildings with Canada with an abstract white geometry and details. Its tactical of stair tower, ramp, and deck, out of province, covering the white superstruc- aim is to attain, as economically as pos- sight facing the harbour, remains intact ture with primary colours taken from fish- sible, a preconceived level of gratifica- fig. This tradition also neglect of certain modes of architecture, festation of the folk imperative fig. Architectural firm: fig. Design architect: Beaton Sheppard. Beaton Sheppard collection. Architectural firm: Architects Four Ltd. Design architect: Jeff VanDommelen.
Architects Four collection. According to Ian McKay, What does not fit this ruling narrative is to the growth paradigms and input-out- the mechanism was both external and dealt with rather ruthlessly. Cases in point put mentality of industrial modernism. Design architects: David Bergmark and Ole Hammarlund.
David Bergmark and Ole Hammarlund in front of the south wall and solar collector panels, n. Bergmark Hammarlund Jones collection. Painting by Reginald Shepherd, William Smallwood collection. The Ark embodies an the earth. Maritime history, that of the draft dodg- for the future in Canada. But the remote ers, hippies, and back-to-the-landers of site and the emphasis on self-sufficiency The Ark had a chequered career, especially the s and s.
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Their legacy of social suggest a retreat from organized society. Such an insti- farm at Roaches Line, Newfoundland and with a monumental fireplace crowned by tution would be an important step for Labrador fig. Two wings branch Newfoundland in coming to terms with House was conceived as the central villa back from the prow to enclose an exter- the difficulties of the recent past.
One wing slightly larger than modernity and progress, a large-scale the other, some say a subtle reminder In the PEI Ark, the aim was to be consol- pork ranch. The architectural images the land, in contrast to the restlessness of projects like the Churchill Falls dam challenge viewers to think critically fisherfolk. The and exemplify the cold disregard paid to for pasture or kitchen gardens. A gas station the Smallwood legacy at a healthy dis- ruling clique controls not only the future and restaurant across the road provided tance from St.
The Newfoundland never happened […] This prospect fright- vision of progress fig. Smallwood House stands in dire straits, abandoned ens me much more than bombs—and after was a pariah in Newfoundland for his by the province. Even the regional road our experiences of the last few years, that role in the referendum that ended system has been redesigned to move the is not a frivolous statement. Architect Angus main route well away from views to the Campbell was known by the nickname house.
John's, and liked to incor- the potential to accommodate a signifi- ern built heritage, in Atlantic Canada or porate mathematical references and cant interpretive centre of Smallwood elsewhere, is not occurring in the face jokes in his designs. Design architect: Angus Campbell.
Premier Joseph Smallwood in the living room of Newfoundland House, Bob Brooks. Toronto Reference Library. Architectural firm: Cummings and Campbell, fig. The gas station and contract drawing 3, June Delineator: Angus Campbell. There are the worthy reasons, an open dialogue becomes increasingly both cultural and material, in modern including the obligation to bear witness to unlikely if canons of significance, criteria buildings. Photograph: Ernest Maunder.
Design consultants: Prof. Ojars Biskaps and Prof. General view showing black fig. Photograph: from De Lorimier, Ernest Maunder. Expo 67 - Montreal, Canada, p. So the big shelter is formed Corey, most often involving heritage Coda - Atlantic Provinces by unequal-length up to seventy-five themes and incorporating found arte- Pavilion, Expo 67 feet black spruce cantilever roof trusses, facts.
Marjorie Lorain embedded marine embodying an exhibition of the uses of plants in a series of luminous translucent A nostalgic glance at the Atlantic Provinces eastern spruce, and was the largest can- fibreglass panels. View of Atlantica under construction in the boatyard under the canopy, with the viewing gallery behind, A more complex and suggestive folk image, offering a living engagement of folk tradition and contemporary culture. Over the course of the fair, the forty- A contemporary commentator, I.
Kalin fruitful relations between tradition seven-foot schooner Atlantica was con- of the Federal Materials Branch, and progress in Atlantic Canada. The result was local culture but without the wilful, Atlantic Provinces special day, accompan- an interesting contemporary building false humility projected by a tourism- ied by a band from Trinidad and Tobago which helped to tell the desired story driven self-image. Docomomo International Journal, no. The brick facades were Nova Scotia Association of Architects; and Bevan, Robert, , The Destruction of Kalin, I.
Reaktion Books, p. In each case, the ensuing lively and In Nesbitt, op. De Lorimier, Jean-Louis ed. Mannell, Steven, , Atlantic Modern: International Exhibition Held in Montreal 3. Halifax Mail-Star, December 1, , p. Signs of a positive move toward the reco- Press. York, Random House. Mellin, Rober t , 20 03, Tilting : House 8. He holds degrees in economics, art history, and architectural history from McGill University and the University of Toronto. He has published essays and exhibition catalogues on such topics as ice skating rinks and hockey O n March 15, , a parade made its way down Ste.
Catherine Street in downtown Montreal. Riding in open-topped cars of the s to s were Montreal hockey legends, also of that vintage fig. A four-storey tall inflated hockey player added a festive air to the procession, which nevertheless was tinged with a funereal sadness— something gained and something lost. In light of this underlying goal, even more important than those vintage hockey players decked out in the bleu, blanc et rouge, was the presence of a simple torch.
Guy Lafleur, one of ill. The overtly religious dimension we learned when we first stepped into who thereupon dipped the torch to touch of these ceremonies echoed the medieval the room were about the torch. Four nights before the parade this torch and by many thousands more via tele- The sacred aspect of the parade would had been the central actor in a public rela- vision, the Forum was desanctified.
They had been sold off at popularity of communion wafers sold as a reference that will be clarified fur- a charity auction two nights earlier. These team les Glorieux, la Sainte-Flanelle. This incarnation of Montreal consecrate their new home. Archibald, its three-storey neo-Renaissance exterior, composed of red brick with sandstone trim, repeated the rhythms, punctuating corner pavilions, and central arched main entrance on Ste.
Catherine Street of the roller rink it replaced fig. The encompassing girdle of small shops at street level, marked by signs and mar- quees, endowed the Forum with a com- mercial aspect intended to harmonize its great bulk within its downtown loca- fig. Lowell Kotko. This makeover completely trans- residences.
From its beginnings hockey has tuating its mass by sheathing it in a type—the hockey arena. Catherine Street. Glenbow archives, NB Charles P. All such continued to grow in popularity and that a real and constant threat. They burned rinks relied on natural ice surfaces, and created the economic condition leading easily and often.
At Westmount Gardens, and Olympia in recognition ence huddled around the perimeter of Arena blankets were rented to specta- of the new-found confidence of their a cleared patch of frozen pond. What tors at ten cents apiece. Seats were owners. The improved solidity and flying puck s and bodies. One small ity increasingly difficult as games pro- stability of these arenas were essential technological advance, the shift from gressed.
Fog-covered ice surfaces were components to the financial success of gas to electric lighting at the end of the not uncommon, and since electric lights the fledgling National Hockey League nineteenth century, lowered the aver- originally lacked reflectors, much of their NHL. While fan comfort was equally age interior temperature of these rinks illumination was lost to the ceiling, fur- upgraded, hockey spectating still left by about eight Celsius degrees.
For these enthusiasts, hockey was showed how the humble, ubiquitous a unique form of entertainment, often Quonset-hut type arenas that dot the bordering on religious fer vour. This Canadian landscape serve as de facto devout audience willingly accepted a cultural centres, the glue that binds spectatorship experience that included many small communitie s to ge ther. I well of four hundred and thirty-four people remember the galoshes, overcoat, and faced with the daunting challenge of mittens I wore to watch the Canadiens replacing their structurally unsound play at the Forum in the mids.
For rink. It could even be argued and old […] the backbone of the com- that the shared experience of these munity […] the gathering place for the hardships further united hockey fans, winter months. Maple Leaf Gardens archives. Such loyalty other towns that have lost their rinks. This fact alone con- understood. Millions in all provinces came points of advanced technology within to treat Saturday night as Hockey Night, Maple Leaf Gardens, lending a progres- one of the few bright spots in a country sive dynamism to sport spectating that facing war while still suffering the Great was entirely new.
Not only did this sound Depression. Fans coming to Toronto for the system amplif y and broadcast music first time trooped like pilgrims to Maple Leaf and announcements to fans within the Gardens, the only Toronto institution known building, but it could receive program- across Canada with unquestioning respect. And when Foster Forum was one of the Original Six hockey fig.
Hewitt discovered that the best location arenas that achieved iconic status over from which to observe the game and the course of its seventy-two years of con- report the action was high above the ice tinuous operation. The Shamrock and Wanderer column-free interior volume, estab - which were still cause for great wonder teams were Irish, the Montagnard and lish a grand street presence in its pre- at this date , was originally accessed by National were French, and the Victorias dominantly low-rise neighbourhood and a catwalk without safety railing.
More were Scots. With the advent of open against a city skyline still dominated by than the Art Deco styling of its exterior, professionalism in the early twentieth church spires. Throughout the s and at Maple Leaf Gardens. The four-sided fan support from specific communities.
Maple Leaf Gardens , was always perceived as more than connection to Maple Leaf Gardens with- also included what then was believed to a struggle to establish ethnic bragging out ever having set foot inside the place. Af ter fire destroyed the Westmount Arena in , the Montreal Wanderers ceased operations, leaving the Montreal Canadiens as the sole club representing Montreal in the National Hockey League. Hockey Hall of Fame, Toronto. The ium. Rushing toward the net during a Arena, former home to the now-defunct rights of these young players were match against Chicago on the evening Wanderers.
Still in the hospital two air skating rink, also called the Forum. Laid at centre ice, surrounded by of the Royal Bank; J. McConnell of to protect the French-Canadian flavour four truckloads of flowers and an honour St. Lawrence Sugar; and several Molsons, of the team. Therefore, the Canadiens guard of team-mates, some fifty thou- of brewery and bank fame. Ten thousand fans remained became a national stage for the unfold- of hooliganism, as it was described behind for the funeral service itself, which ing of a cultural and political drama.
Anger is rum- to English bosses, the success of their cial. When Campbell attended a hockey bling in the province of Quebec like hockey team provided an important game at the Forum the following night, the water held captive in the rivers by and visible source of pride and positive he was pelted with debris and physically the winter ice. And it was during assaulted by indignant fans. A tear gas was regarded by many as an agent of these two decades that the Canadiens canister erupted within the arena and James Norris, head of the power ful began their ascendancy as the most as the angry crowd left the building, family that effectively controlled the successful franchise in team sport his- the game now forfeit, they were joined NHL and whose team, the Detroit Red tory by winning eight Stanley Cups.
Asking for symbolic champion. The Forum, formerly a site and come back next year. Montreal, Drapeau had also spoken The closing of the Forum and the move French-language Montreal newspaper out against Clarence Campbell, con- to the Molson Centre in were there- Samedi-Dimanche. Quebec society had enough to draw attention to the griev- solitudes.
Players were now less loyal to teams, according to a plan that would preserve in the face of million-dollar salaries, and its exterior along with glimpses of the fig. Though ally has become less observant of reli- was in November , we can hardly not demolished—the fate of Golden era gion through the twentieth century, be surprised by the fate of the Forum. In Toronto, a proposal was new functions, often quite remote from dence for its claim to apotheosis within put forward in to transform Maple the spiritual roles they once played.
This paper is part of a larger study on the ticed. Pastier himself only discusses the history of skating rinks and hockey are- 5. The banners and other Forum memorabi- stadium, ignoring the pendant arena. Religious processions date back to the and offered important suggestions for while closely related building types such as seventeenth century in Quebec and conti- corrections and improvements. All such processions in Quebec Between the crosses row on row, assemble behind the banner for their That mark our place; and in the sky Short days ago also find a parallel in the deep strain of and Entertainment Ltd.
We lived, felt dawn, saw sunset glow, superstition that runs through professio- Loved and were loved, and now we lie nal sport. Lucky socks, specific bus sea- For a more detailed consideration of the In Flanders fields. In Flanders fields. The televisual qualities of sports stadiums tricity. Brian Trubey, architect of wounded. Dick Irvin, Sr.
I am grateful to Dick Irvin for incredible for the people actually physi-
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